Cloud Seeding

Scientific Research Papers


Osburn, L., Chubb, T., Siems, S., Manton, M., Peace, A.D., 2016 Observations of Supercooled Liquid Water in Wintertime Alpine Storms in South Eastern Australia. Atmospheric Research 169, 345-356.

Stromsoe, N., Marx, S.k., Callow, N., McGowan, H.A., Heijnis, H., 2016. Estimates of late Holocene soil production and erosion in the Snowy Mountains, Australia. Catena 145, 68-82

Theobald, A., McGowan, H.A., 2016. Evidence of increased tropical moisture in southeast Australian alpine precipitation during ENSO. Geophysical Research Letters 43 (20)

Chubb, T., Manton, M.J., Siems, S.T., and Peace, A.D., 2016. Evaluation of the AWAP daily precipitation spatial analysis with an independent gauge network in the Snowy Mountains.  Journal of Southern Hemisphere Earth Systems Science 66(1): 55-67.


Stromsoe, N., Marx, S.K., McGowan, H.A., Callow, J.N., Heijnis H. and Zawadzki A, 2015:  A landscape-scale approach to examining the fate of atmospherically derived industrial metals in the surficial environment. Science of The Total Environment, 505, 962-980, DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.10.072

Manton, J. M., Results of a cloud seeding project in the Snowy Mountains of Australia (invited presentation). American Meteorological Society 20th Joint Conference on Planned and Inadvertent Weather Modification,  4–8 January 2015, as part of the 95th AMS Annual Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona

Chubb, T., Manton, M.J., Siems, S.T., Peace, A.D. and Bilish, S.P., 2015. Estimation of wind-induced losses from a precipitation gauge network in the Australian Snowy Mountains. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 16(6): 2619-2638. 

Theobald, A., McGowan, H. and Speirs, J. 2015: Trends in synoptic circulation and precipitation in the Snowy Mountains region, Australia, in the period 1958–2012.  Atmospheric Research, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2015.05.007.

Theobald, A., H. McGowan, J. Speirs, and N. Callow, 2015: A synoptic classification of inflow-generating precipitation in the Snowy Mountains, Australia. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-14-0278.1, in press.


Huang, Y., S. T. Siems, M. J. Manton and G. Thompson, 2014: An Evaluation of the WRF Simulations of the Clouds over the Southern Ocean with A-Train Observations. Monthly Weather Review, 142, 647-667, DOI: 10.1175/MWR-D-13-00128.1

Dai, J., M. J. Manton, S. T. Siems and E. E. Ebert, 2014: Estimation of daily winter precipitation over the Snowy Mountains of South Eastern Australia. J. Hydrometeorology, 15, 909-920, DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-13-081.1

Callow N., McGowan H., Warren L. and Speirs J., 2014. Drivers of precipitation stable oxygen isotope variability in an alpine setting, Snowy Mountains, Australia. Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, 119 6: 3016-3031. doi:10.1002/2013JD020710


Stromsoe, N., Callow, J.N., McGowan, H.A., Marx, S.K., 2013. Attribution of sources to metal accumulation in an alpine tarn, the Snowy Mountains, Australia. Environmental Pollution, 181, 133-143

Chubb, T. H., J. B. Jenson, S. T. Siems and M. J. Manton, 2013: In-situ observations of supercooled liquid clouds over the Southern Ocean during the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) campaigns. Geophys. Res. Letters, 40, 5280–5285, doi:10.1002/grl.50986

Johnson, C. D., S. T. Siems, M. J. Manton and E. E. Ebert, 2013: An evaluation of the precipitation forecasts of the Poor Man’s Ensemble for wintertime rainfall across the southern portion of Australia. Austral. Meteor. and Ocean. J., 63, 315-324

Morrison, A.E., S.T. Siems and M.J. Manton, 2013: On a natural environment for glaciogenic cloud seeding. J. Appl. Meteor. and Climatol. 52, 1097-1104, doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-12-0108.1


Lincoln-Smith, M., A. Dye, K. Kemsley, J. Denholm 2011, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment: A Statistical Analysis of Concentrations of Silver and Indium at Generator Locations,  J. Weather Mod., 43, No 1

Manton, M.J., and L. Warren, 2011, Results of a cloud seeding project in the Snowy Mountains of Australia, American Meteorological Society 18th Joint Conference on Planned and Inadvertent Weather Modification 

Manton, M.J., L. Warren, S.L. Kenyon, A.D. Peace, S.P. Bilish, and K. Kemsley, 2011: A Confirmatory Snowfall Enhancement Project in the Snowy Mountains of Australia – Part 1: Project Design and Response Variables. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol, doi: 10.1175/2011JAMC2659.1

Manton, M.J. and L. Warren, 2011: A Confirmatory Snowfall Enhancement Project in the Snowy Mountains of Australia – Part 2: Primary and Associated Analyses. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol, doi: 10.1175/2011JAMC2660.1

Marx, S.K., B.S. Kamber,  H.A. McGowan, and J. Denholm 2011: Holocene dust deposition rates record the interplay between aridity, position of the mid-latitude westerlies, and a major agriculture induced wind erosion in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. Quaternary Science Reviews. 30 (23–24), 3290–3305

Rampal G., A. Peace, O. Hewatt, and S.L. Kenyon, 2011. Snowy Precipitation Enhancement Research Project: Upgrading Noah II Precipitation Gauges With an Auto-Siphoning System. J. Weather Mod., 43, number 1

Warren, L., and M. Manton, 2011, Analysis and Outcomes of a Cloud Seeding Project in the Snowy Mountains of Australia, International Symposium on Weather Modification, Meteorological Research Institute, Japan Meteorological Agency, Tsukuba, Japan 

Chubb, T.H., S.T. Siems and M.J. Manton, 2011: On the decline of wintertime precipitation in the Snowy Mountains of South-Eastern Australia. J. Hydrometeorology, 12, 1483-1497, DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-10-05021.1. 


Chubb, T.H. 2010, Wintertime precipitation in the Australian Alpine Region: Insights from an airmass climatology, 14th Conference on Mountain Meteorology, Squaw Valley (California), September 2010

Dai, J., M. Manton, and S. Siems 2010, Improvement of Poor Man’s Ensemble Precipitation Forecast in Mountainous Regions of Australia, 3rd WMO International Conference on QPE and QPF and hydrology, Nanjing, China 2010 

Marx, S. K., B. S Kamber, H. A. McGowan, and A. Zawadzki 2010, Atmospheric pollutants in alpine peat bogs record a detailed chronology of industrial and agricultural development on the Australian continent,  Environmental Pollution 158 pp 1615–1628 doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2009.12.009 

Marx, S.K. and H.A. McGowan 2010, Long-distance transport of urban and industrial metals and their incorporation into the environment: Sources, transport pathways and historical trends. In Zereini, F. and Wiseman, C., Urban Airborne Particulate matter: Origins, Chemistry, Fate and Heath, Springer, 103-124 

McGowan, H. A., S. K. Marx, J. Soderholm, and J. Denholm 2010, Evidence of solar and tropical-ocean forcing of hydroclimate cycles in southeastern Australia for the past 6500 years, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L10705, doi:10.1029/2010GL042918. 

McGowan, H.A., S. K. Marx, J. Soderholm, J. Denholm, and L. Petherick 2010: Insight to forcing of late Quaternary climate change from aeolian dust archives in eastern Australia. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting, San Francisco, 13-17 December 2010. 


Manton, M.J., J. Dai, and L. Warren 2009, Initial report on the evaluation of Phase 1 of the Snowy Precipitation Enhancement Research Project (SPERP-1), J. Weather Mod., 41, 27-42. 

Marx, S.K, B.S. Kamber, H.A. McGowan, J. Denholm 2009, Detailed history of Holocene climate variability in Australia from dust records in peat cores. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta., Vol.   , p.A843. 

Marx, S.K., H. A. McGowan, and B.S. Kamber 2009: Long-range dust transport from eastern Australia: a proxy for Holocene aridity and ENSO induced climate variability. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 282(1-4), 167-177. 

McGowan, H. A., S. K. Marx, J. Denholm, J. Soderholm, and B. S. Kamber 2009, Reconstructing annual inflows to the headwater catchments of the Murray River, Australia, using the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L06707, doi:10.1029/2008GL037049. 

McGowan, H. A., S. K. Marx, J. Denholm, J. Soderholm, B.S. Kamber 2009: Reconstructing palaeo-annual inflows to the headwater catchments of the Murray River, Australia. 7th International Conference on Geomorphology, Melbourne, Australia, 6-11 July 2009. 

Williams, B., and J. Denholm (2009). An Assessment of the Environmental Toxicity of Silver Iodide – with reference to a Cloud Seeding Trial in the Snowy Mountains of Australia. J. Weather Mod., 41, 75-96. 


Chubb, T.H., S. Siems, M. Manton 2008: Sources of atmospheric aerosols during wintertime storms in the Snowy Mountains, International Conference on Clouds and Precipitation, Cancun, Mexico, 7-11 July 2008. 

Huggins, A.W., S. L. Kenyon, L. Warren, A.D. Peace, S.P. Bilish, and M.J. Manton, 2008: The Snowy Precipitation Enhancement Research Project: a description and preliminary results. J. Weather Mod., 40, 28-51. 

Hunt, J., J Denholm and A. Huggins 2008, Ammonia and NOx in seeded and unseeded snowfall – an Australian perspective, American Meteorological Society 17th Joint Conference on Planned and Inadvertent Weather Modification 

Marx, S.K., B.S. Kamber,  H.A. McGowan 2008: Scavenging of atmospheric trace metal pollutants by mineral dusts: Inter-regional transport of Australian trace metal pollution to New Zealand. Atmospheric Environment. 42(10), 2460-2478.

Marx, S.K, B.S. Kamber, H.A. McGowan 2008, Identification of palaeo-drought episodes in eastern Australia: High resolution dust flux records, as an indicator of teleconnections and associated drought in the Australian region, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 72, p. A599.

Marx, S.K., H.A. McGowan, and J. Denholm 2008, Identification of palaeo-drought episodes in the catchments of the Snowy Mountains Hydro Scheme and Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. Australian and New Zealand Geomorphology Group, 10 – 15 February 2008 Queenstown, Tasmania, Australia. 

Marx, S.K, H.A. McGowan, B.S. Kamber, J. Denholm 2008, Contemporary and palaeo-drought episodes in the Snowy Mountains and Murray-Darling Basin, Australia: A multi-scaled approach to understanding drought,  Western Pacific Geophysics Meeting, Cairns, 29 July – 1 August. 

McGowan, H. A., S. K. Marx, and J. Denholm 2008, 7000 years of dust deposition: A proxy record of alpine drought and climate variability in the Snowy Mountains, Australia. 13th American Meteorological Society Mountain Meteorology Conference, Whistler, Canada, 11-15 August 2008. 


Heggli, M.F., B. Dunn, A.W. Huggins, J. Denholm, L. Angri, and T. Luker, 2005: The Snowy Precipitation Enhancement Research Project, American Meteorological Society 16th Joint Conference on Planned and Inadvertent Weather Modification